Ameliorative Potentials of Justicia Carnea and Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius on the Fecundity of Chloramphenicol-Induced Lymphoma Rats

  • Onyegeme-Okerenta Blessing Minaopunyea Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
  • Omeje Henry Chimeziea Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Keywords: Fecundity, Justicia Carnea, Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius, Chloramphenicol, Lymphoma


Justicia carnea and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius were tested for their capacity to ameliorate the fecundity of chloramphenicol-induced lymphoma in rats. Seventy male Wistar rats weighing an average of 128g were randomly divided into 14 groups of five rats each. Group 1 was provided with commercial rat diet and water on a daily basis. For 28 days, rats in groups 2-14 received 250mg/kg bodyweight chloramphenicol by oral intubation. Group 2 received no therapy and is thus referred to as the negative control group. The remaining groups (3–14) received aqueous leaf extracts of J. carnea (ALEJC) (Groups 3-6), C. aconitifolius (ALECA) (Groups 7–10), or a combination of both extracts (Groups 11–14) at dosages of 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg, 1500mg/kg, and 2000mg/kg, respectively, for 28 days. After anaesthesia with ether, blood was drawn from the retro-orbital venous plexus to determine the activities of oxidative stress indicators such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH). The testes were dissected for histological inspection and the semen were collected for analysis. The results indicated a significant (p0.05) increase in weight across groups, as well as a reduction in sperm volume, viability, and motility in group 2 animals as compared to group 1. SOD and GSH levels increased significantly, but MDA levels increased in a non-significant (p>0.05) manner. The results indicated that the extracts had a beneficial impact on infertility associated with excessive chloramphenicol exposure.


Azeez, O.I., Oyagbemi, A.A., Oyeyemi, M.O. & Odetola, A.A. (2010). Ameliorative effects of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan toxicity in Wistar rats. Afr Health Sci.10(3):283-91.

Bahadur, G., Ling, K.L., Hart, R., Ralph, D., Wafa, R., Ashraf, A., Jaman, N., Mahmud, S. & Oyede, A. W. (2002). Semen quality and cryopreservation in adolescent cancer patients. Hum Reprod., 17:3157–61. DOI:10.1093/HUMREP/17.12.3157

Behringer K., Breuer, K. & Reineke, T. (2005). Secondary amenorrhea after Hodgkin’s lymphoma is influenced by age at treatment, stage of disease, chemotherapy regimen, and the use of oral contraceptives during therapy: a report from the German Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Study Group. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 23:7555–7564. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.08.138

Chris-Ozoko, L.E., Ekundina, V.O. & Opute, R. (2012). Histological effects of Aqueous Extract of cassia Occidentalis Leaf on the Liver and Kidney in Adult Wistar Rats. Journal of Medical and Applied Biosciences vol. 4, 42-52.

Diehl, V., Franklin, J. & Pfreundschuh, M. (2003). Standard and increased-dose BEACOPP chemotherapy compared with COPP-ABVD for advanced Hodgkin’s disease. Journal of Medicine. 348: 2386–2395. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa022473

Duewelhenke, N., Krut, O. & Eysel, P. (2007). Influence on mitochondria and cytotoxicity of different antibiotics administered in high concentrations on primary human osteoblasts and cell lines, Antimicrob. AgentsChemother., 51, 54–63. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00729-05

Ebeye, O.A, Ekundina, V.O & Wilkie, I.E. (2014). Histological and biochemical effects of aqueous extract of ocimum gratissimum on the liver and kidney of adult wistar rats. African Journal of Cellular Pathology.2:59-64. DOI: 10.5897/AJCPATH14.008

Eboh, D.E.O. & Ekundina, V.O. (2012). Histomophological effect of Chronic Administration of Occimium gratissimum on some Organs of Adult Wistar Rats. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Sciences and Research, 2(1):69 – 75.

Ekundina, V.O., Ebeye, O.A., Oladele, A.A. & Ajayi, M. (2014). Histolological effects of Pomesteen Power Supplement on the Liver of Adult Wistar Rats. Continental Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology Research 7 (1): 8 - 16, 2014. Doi:10.5707/cjptres.2014.

Fagbohun, E.D., Egbebi, A.O. & Lawal, O.U. (2012). Phytochemical Screening, Proximate Analysis and In-Vitro Antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius leaves. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 13(1): 28-33.

Greco, R.S., Acheson, R.M. & Foote, F.M. (1974). Hodgkin disease in Connecticut from 1935 to 1962. The bimodal incidence curve in the general population and survival in untreated patients. Archive Intern Med. 134: 1039–1042.

Hajian, S. (2013). Renoprotective effects of Green tea. J Nephropharmacol. 2(2):21–2.

Kidd, S.A., Eskenazi, B. & Wyrobek, A. J. (2001). Effects of male age on semen quality and fertility: a review of the literature. Fertility and Sterility. 75 (2): 237–48. DOI: 10.1016/s0015-0282(00)01679-4

Li, C.H., Cheng, Y.W., Liao, P.L., Yang, Y.T. & Kang J.J. (2010). Chloramphenicol Causes Mitochondrial Stress, Decreases ATP Biosynthesis, Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 Expression, and Solid-Tumor Cell Invasion, Toxicol Sci., 116 (1), 140–150. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq085.

Louis, P., Hold, G. L., & Flint, H. J. (2014). The gut microbiota, bacterial metabolites and colorectal cancer. Nature reviews microbiology, 12(10), 661-672

Mantovani, G., Maccio, A., Madeddu, C., Mura, L., Gramignano, G., Lusso, M.R., Mulas, C., Mudu, M.C., Murgia, V., Camboni, P., Massa, E., Ferreli, L., Contu, P., Rinaldi, A., Sanjust, E,, Atzei, D. & Elsener, B. (2002). Quantitative evaluation of oxidative stress, chronic inflammatory indices and leptin in cancer patients: correlation with stage and performance status. International Journal of Cancer, 98(1):84–91. DOI:10.1002/ijc.10143

Okwu, D.E. (2004). Phytochemical and vitamin content of indigenous spices of South Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and the Environment, 6: 30-34.

Onyegeme-Okerenta, B.M., Peters, D.E. & Idiabeta, P.E. (2019). Analgesic Potentials of aqueous leaf extracts of Jatropha tanjorensis and Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on Wistar rats. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Clinical Research, 1(2): 9-14.

Orjiakor, C.A., Uroko, R.I., Njoku, O.U., Ezeanyika, L.U.S. & Uchenna, S. (2019). Nutritive properties of aqueous extract Justicia carnea leaves and its effects on haematological and some biochemical indices of anaemia induced male wistar albino rats. Biomedical Research, 30 (4): 645-654. DOI: 10.35841/biomedicalresearch.30-18-666

Peroja, P., Pasinen, A.K., Haapasaan, K.M., Jantunen, E., Soini, Y., Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, T., Bloigu, R., Lilja, L., Kuittinen, O. & Karithala, P. (2012). Oxidative stress and redox state-regulating enzymes have prognostic relevance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Experimental Hematology and Oncology. 1:2. 10.1186/2162-3619-1-2

Raji, Y., Oloyo, A.K., & Morakinyo, A.O. (2006). Effect of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on reproduction of female rats. Asian J Androl.; 8(1): 115-21. DOI:10.1111/J.1745-7262.2006.00055.X

Rueffer, U., Breuer, K., Josting, A., Lathan, B., Sieber, M., Manzke, O. Grotenhermen, F. J. Tesch, H. Bredenfeld, H. Koch, P. Nisters-Backes, H. Wolf, J. Engert, A. & Diehl, V. (2001). Male gonadal dysfunction in patients with hodgkin’s disease prior to treatment. Annals of Oncology 12, 1307– 1311. doi: 10.1023/a:1012464703805

Schilsky, R.L. (1989). Infertility in patients with testicular cancer: testis, tumor, or treatment? J Natl Cancer Inst. 81:1204–5. doi: 10.1093/jnci/81.16.1204

Schover, L.R., Brey, K. & Lichtin, A. (2002). Knowledge and experience regarding cancer, Infertility, and sperm banking in younger male survivors. Journal of Clinical Oncology 20: 1880–1889. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2002.07.175.

Tanwar, B. & Ranji, M. (2012). Flavonoids: Dietary occurrence and health benefits. Peer Reviewed Journal on Complementary Medicine and Drug Discovery, 2(1): 59-68. DOI:10.5455/SPATULA.20120328100506

Tripathi, K.D. (2003). Essential of Medical pharmacology, 5th Ed., Japee Brothers Medical publishers (P) Ltd., New Delhi, 674-675.

Udedi, S.C., Umeohia, M., Asogwa, K. K. & Ubaoji, K.I. (2020). Effect of ethanol leave extracts of Justicia carnea on Reproductive function of male wistar Albino rats. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Science, 15(5):9-20. DOI: 10.9790/3008-1505020920

Usoh, I.F., Akpan, E.J., Etim, E.O. & Farombi, E.O. (2005). Antioxidant Actions of Dried Flower extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on Sodium arsnenite induced oxidative stress in rats. Pak J Nutr., 4(3):135-141.

Vajdovich, P., Kriska, T., Mezes, M., Szabo, P.R., Balogh, N., Banfi, A., Arany-Toth, A., Gaal, T. & Jakus, J. (2005). Redox status of dogs with non-Hodgkin lymphomas. An ESR study. Cancer Letter. 224:339–346.

Valko, M, Rhodes, C.J., Moncol, J., Izakovic, M. & Mazur, M. (2006). Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 1(106):1–40. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2005.12.009

Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M.T., Mazur, M. & Telser, J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 39 (1): 44–84. /

Yuan, Z.R. & Shi, Y. (2008). Chloramphenicol induces abnormal differentiation and inhibits apoptosis in activated T cells, Cancer Res., 68, 4875–4881. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6061

How to Cite
Minaopunyea, O.-O. B., & Chimeziea, O. H. (2022). Ameliorative Potentials of Justicia Carnea and Cnidoscolus Aconitifolius on the Fecundity of Chloramphenicol-Induced Lymphoma Rats. Journal La Lifesci, 3(2), 65-75.