Foam Glass Gravel Experimentally Made in a 10 kW-Microwave Oven
The experimental manufacture of foam glass gravel from glass waste has been quantitatively extended by increasing the power of the microwave oven from 0.8 to10 kW, the authors' interest being focused on the quality of the foamed product. The work equipment was rather improvised, the existing used oven not being adequate except to small extent for the requirements of the experiment, but it allowed obtaining a product similar to those industrially manufactured by conventional techniques. Using a recipe previously tested on the 0.8 kW-microwave oven composed of 1 wt.% glycerol as a liquid foaming agent together with 8 wt.% water glass as an enveloping agent and 8 wt.% water as a binder, the main features of the foam glass gravel lumps were: bulk density of 0.22 g/cm3, porosity of 88.9%, thermal conductivity of 0.057 W/m·K, compressive strength of 5.9 MPa and pore size between 0.10-0.30 mm. The specific energy consumption was negatively influenced by the excessive internal volume of the oven, but even under these conditions its value was relatively low (between 1.53-1.69 kWh/kg).
Anovitz, L.M., & Cole, D.R. (2005). Characterization and analysis of porosity and pore structures. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 80, 61-164.
Cosmulescu, F., Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., & Axinte, S.M. (2020). Comparative analysis of the foam glass gravel types experimentally produced by microwave irradiation. Journal of Engineering Studies and Research, 26(3), 58-68.
Dou, B., Dupont, V., Williams, P.T., Chen, H., & Ding, Y. (2008). Thermogravimetric kinetics of crude glycerol. Bioresource Technology, 100(9), 2613-2620. Available from: http://dx.doi,org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.11.037
Dragoescu, M.F., Paunescu, L., & Axinte, S.M. (2020). Nonconventional technique of sintering/foaming the glass waste using a liquid carbonic foaming agent. Nonconventional Technologies Review, 24(3), 4-12.
Environmental Product Declaration, Glapor Werk Mitterteich GmbH, (2017). Available from: http://www.Glapor-cellular-glass.pdf
Geocell Foam Glass Gravel. (2016). Available from: https://www.geocell-schaumglas.eu/en/
Glamaco Foam Glass Gravel. (2018). Available from: http://www.glamaco.com/products/foam_glass_gravel
Glapor Schaumglasprodukte. Cellular Glass Gravel. (2017). Available from:https://www.glapor.de/en/produkte/cellular_glass_gravel
Hibbert, M., (2016) Understanding the production and use of foam glass gravel across Europe and opportunities in the UK, Final report. Chartered Institution of Wastes Management, Northampton.
Hurley, J., (2003). Glass-Research and Development, Final report. A UK market survey for foam glass, Banbury-Oxon (United Kingdom), The Waste and Resources Action Programme Publication.
Jelle, B.P. (2011). Review: Traditional, state-of-the-art and future thermal building insulation materials and solutions – Properties, requirements and possibilities. Energy and Buildings, 43 (10), 2549-2563. Available from: https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.05.01Get_rights_and_content
Karandashova, N.S., Goltsman, B.M., & Yatsenko, E.A. (2017). Analysis of influence of foaming mixture components on structure and properties of foam glass. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 262, 1-6. Available from: https://iopscience.iop.org>article>262
Kharissova, O., Kharissov, B.I., & Ruiz Valdés, J.J. (2010). Review: The use of microwave irradiation in the processing of glasses and their composites. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 49(4), 1457-1466.
Misapor. (2016). Available from: https://www.misapor.ch/en/company
Packaging waste statistics-Eurostat Statistics Explained, May (2020). Available from: www.ec.europa.eu>statistics-explained>index.php/Packaging_waste_statistics
Paunescu, L., Axinte, S.M., Grigoras, B.T., Dragoescu, M.F., & Fiti, A. (2017). Testing the use of microwave energy to produce foam glass. European Journal of Engineering and Technology, 5(4), 8-17.
Paunescu, L., Constantin, N., Dragoescu, M.F., Ioana, A., Axinte, S.M., & Rucai, V. (2020b) Recycled glass waste expanded by a microwave heating technique. UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series B, 82(4), 325-336.
Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., & Axinte, S.M. (2020a). Foam glass gravel from recycled glass waste produced with the microwave energy. Nonconventional Technologies Review, 24(2), 22-28.
Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., & Axinte, S.M. (2020c). High mechanical strength porous material used as a foam glass gravel experimentally manufactured from glass waste by an unconventional technique. Constructii, 21(1), 54-62.
Paunescu, L., Dragoescu, M.F., & Paunescu, B.V. (2019). Foam glass gravel made from glass waste by microwave irradiation. Constructii, 20(1-2), 35-41.
Record collection of glass containers for recycling hits 76% in the EU, The European Container Glass Federation, Brussels, October 29, (2019). Available from: www.feve.org/aboutglass/statistics
Scarinci, G., Brusatin, G., & Bernardo, E. (2005). Glass Foams in Cellular Ceramics: Structure, Manufacturing, Properties and Applications, Scheffler, M., Colombo, P. eds., Wiley-VCH GmbH & KGaA, Weinheim (Germany), pp. 158-176.
Scorgins, A. (2015). Bulk density of industrial minerals: Reporting in accordance with the 2007 SME Guide. Available from: https://www.csaglobal.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Bulk-density-of-industrial-minerals-Reporting-in-accordance-with-the-2007-SME-Guide.pdf
Copyright (c) 2021 Journal La Multiapp
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.