Journal La Multiapp https://newinera.com/index.php/JournalLaMultiapp <p>International <strong>Journal La Multiapp</strong> ISSN 2721-1290 (Online) and ISSN 2716-3865 (Print) includes all the areas of research activities in all fields Engineering, Technology, Computer Sciences, A<span class="tlid-translation translation" lang="en"><span class="" title="">rchitect</span></span>, Applied Biology, Applied Chemistry, Applied Physics, Material Engineering, Civil Engineering, Military and Defense Studies, Photography, Cryptography, Electrical Engineering, Electronics, Environment Engineering, Computer Engineering, Software Engineering, Electromechanical Engineering, Transport Engineering, Mining Engineering, Telecommunication Engineering, Aerospace Engineering, Food Science, Geography, Oil &amp; Petroleum Engineering, Biotechnology, Agricultural Engineering, Food Engineering, Material Science, Earth Science, Geophysics, Meteorology, Geology, Health and Sports Sciences, Industrial Engineering, Information and Technology, Social Shaping of Technology, Journalism, Art Study, Artificial Intelligence, and other Applied Sciences.</p> Newinera Publisher en-US Journal La Multiapp 2716-3865 Glass Foam Made with Silicon Nitride and Manganese Oxide by Microwave Irradiation https://newinera.com/index.php/JournalLaMultiapp/article/view/325 <p><em>A high mechanical strength (6.1 MPa) glass foam was produced by sintering/foaming at 830 ºC in an experimental 0.8 kW-microwave oven. The basic raw material was a colorless flat glass waste and the foaming agent was Si3N4 powder (2 wt.%). As an oxygen supplying agent, a MnO2 powder (3.1 wt.%) was used. The main physical, mechanical, thermal and morphological characteristics of the optimal sample were: apparent density of 0.47 g/cm3, porosity of 77.6%, thermal conductivity of 0.105 W/m·K, compressive strength of 6.1 MPa and pore size between 0.15-0.40 mm. The optimal glass foam sample has the required characteristics of a thermal insulation material usable under mechanical stress conditions in civil engineering. The originality of the paper is the application of the unconventional microwave heating technique, faster and more economical, unlike the other papers in the same area published in the literature, followers of the traditional conventional heating technique.</em></p> Marius Florin Dragoescu Lucian Paunescu Sorin Mircea Axinte Copyright (c) 2021 Journal La Multiapp http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 1 9 10.37899/journallamultiapp.v2i2.325 Fault Diagnostic Methodology for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems https://newinera.com/index.php/JournalLaMultiapp/article/view/339 <p>This research focuses on the design of a fault diagnosis methodology to contribute to the improvement of efficiency, maintainability and availability indicators of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems. To achieve this, we start from the study of the mathematical model of the photovoltaic generator, then, a procedure is performed to quantify the operational losses of the photovoltaic generator and adjust the mathematical model of this to the real conditions of the system, through a polynomial adjustment. A real system of nominal power 7.5 kWp installed in the Solar Energy Research Center of the province of Santiago de Cuba is used to evaluate the proposed methodology. Based on the results obtained, the proposed approach is validated to demonstrate that it successfully supervises the system. The methodology was able to detect and identify 100% of the simulated failures and the tests carried out had a maximum false alarm rate of 0.22%, evidencing its capacity.</p> Proenza Y. Roger Camejo C. José Emilio Ramos H. Rubén Copyright (c) 2021 Journal La Multiapp http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ 2021-04-30 2021-04-30 2 2 10 30 10.37899/journallamultiapp.v2i2.339 Experimental Study on the Effect of Triangular Plate Barrier Height on Flow Velocity Distribution in Open Channels https://newinera.com/index.php/JournalLaMultiapp/article/view/364 <p>Open and closed channel flow flows are distinct, the flow in the channels will constantly change. The flow will also be altered if the water level or flow velocity changes. It was found that employing the Pitot Tube Portable yielded findings identical to those calculated by other methods. A water transfer system is made up of natural or artificial structures via which water is moved from one site to another. The carrier building may be open or closed, depending on whether you want to utilize it as a shipping or receiving location. An open channel with a relatively narrow opening at the top is known as an open conduit. The speed data collection technique is carried out vertically, with a review point as illustrated above. The velocity of the flow was measured using a Pitot Tube Portable Automatic tool. The results are entered into the Froude number (fr) after each review point to determine the type of velocity flow at each Review point. The normal flow velocity distribution pattern emerges at the measurement sites of 450 cm, 500 cm, and 550 cm.</p> Lhiung Phung Hwa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal La Multiapp http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 2 2 31 36 10.37899/journallamultiapp.v2i2.364 Foam Glass Gravel Experimentally Made in a 10 kW-Microwave Oven https://newinera.com/index.php/JournalLaMultiapp/article/view/347 <table width="598"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="397"> <p><strong>Abstract&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p><em>The experimental manufacture of foam glass gravel from glass waste has been quantitatively extended by increasing the power of the microwave oven from 0.8 to10 kW, the authors' interest being focused on the quality of the foamed product. The work equipment was rather improvised, the existing used oven not being adequate except to small extent for the requirements of the experiment, but it allowed obtaining a product similar to those industrially manufactured by conventional techniques. Using a recipe previously tested on the 0.8 kW-microwave oven composed of 1 wt.% glycerol as a liquid foaming agent together with 8 wt.% water glass as an enveloping agent and 8 wt.% water as a binder, the main features of the foam glass gravel lumps were: bulk density of 0.22 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, porosity of 88.9%, thermal conductivity of 0.057 W/m·K, compressive strength of 5.9 MPa and pore size between 0.10-0.30 mm. The specific energy consumption was negatively influenced by the excessive internal volume of the oven, but even under these conditions its value was relatively low (between 1.53-1.69 kWh/kg).</em></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Lucian Paunescu Sorin Mircea Axinte Felicia Cosmulescu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal La Multiapp http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 2 2 37 46 10.37899/journallamultiapp.v2i2.347 Procedure for the quantification of the degradation index of Photovoltaic Generators https://newinera.com/index.php/JournalLaMultiapp/article/view/354 <p>A procedure is presented for the quantification of the degradation index of Photovoltaic Generators, based on the quantification of the operational losses inherent in the system, which allows maintaining the nominal operating conditions and by the warranty terms of the photovoltaic generator. A photovoltaic generator connected to the network with a nominal power of 7.5 kWp, installed in the Solar Energy Research Center of Santiago de Cuba, is used to evaluate and validate the procedure. The starting point is the mathematical model of the photovoltaic generator, then the operational losses of the photovoltaic generator are quantified and the mathematical model is adjusted to real conditions, through a polynomial adjustment. &nbsp;The results obtained show that the photovoltaic generator presents deviations in terms of the nominal power generation, because the operational losses are 7% with respect to the values ​​given by the manufacturer.</p> Proenza Y. Roger Camejo C. José Emilio Ramos H. Rubén Copyright (c) 2021 Journal La Multiapp http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ 2021-06-11 2021-06-11 2 2 47 53 10.37899/journallamultiapp.v2i2.354