The Influence of Efficacy and Threat Messages on the Intention to Complete the Covid-19 Booster Vaccination: Experimental Study of University Students

  • Victoria Kesha Ayunarendra Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Siko Wiyanto Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Ivan Nurdin Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia
Keywords: Covid-19, EPPM, Booster, Efficacy, Threat


The COVID-19 pandemic that has occurred since 2020 has not ended until now. The government has made various countermeasures, one of which is accelerating the third or booster vaccine program. However, research results show that the number of people who have received the booster vaccine is still very far from the government's target. One of the reasons why the number of booster vaccine recipients is far from the target is due to people's reluctance to receive booster vaccines. Therefore, effective communication is needed to overcome this problem. Based on previous research, the fear approach is considered an effective way to promote health messages. So, this research tries to use the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM) theory to see the influence of efficacy and threat messages on intentions to take a booster vaccine. The results of this study were that there was no change in intention to carry out booster vaccination in respondents who were given a high threat or a low threat.


Armani, M. (2020). Daftar 29 Negara yang Telah Memulai Vaksinasi Covid-19, Mana Saja? Kompas.Com.

Asarnow, S. (2020). Shared agency without shared intention. The Philosophical Quarterly, 70(281), 665-688.

Chen, L., & Yang, X. (2019). Using EPPM to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Fear Appeal Messages Across Different Media Outlets to Increase the Intention of Breast Self-Examination Among Chinese Women. Health Communication, 34(11), 1369–1376.

CNNIndonesia. (2022). Kemenkes: Merasa Kasus Terkendali, Masih Ada Warga Enggan Booster.

Fridland, E. (2021). Intention at the Interface. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 12(3), 481–505.

Harper, C. A., Satchell, L. P., Fido, D., & Latzman, R. D. (2021). Functional Fear Predicts Public Health Compliance in the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 19(5), 1875–1888.

Jaya, I. M. L. M. (2020). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif dan Kualitatif Teori, Penerapan, dan Riset Nyata. Anak Hebat Indonesia.

Karunia, A. M. (2022, July 5). Vaksin Booster Jadi Syarat Perjalanan dan Kegiatan Masyarakat, Ini Penjelasan Luhut. Kompas.Com.

Kominfo. (2022). Pemerintah Putuskan Vaksinasi Booster Mulai 12 Januari Mendatang.

Lambert, V., Ferguson, S. G., Niederdeppe, J., Hammond, D., Hardin, J. W., & Thrasher, J. F. (2018). Exploring the impact of efcacy messages on cessationrelated outcomes using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 16(September), 1–7.

Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. In Teaching Sociology (Vol. 30, Issue 3).

Park, Y. S., Konge, L., & Artino, A. R. (2020). The Positivism Paradigm of Research. Academic Medicine, 95(5), 690–694.

Popova, L. (2012). The Extended Parallel Process Model: Illuminating the Gaps in Research. Health Education and Behavior, 39(4), 455–473.

Sari, H. P. (2021). [KALEIDOSKOP 2021] Varian Delta yang Menggila, Pelajaran Penting di Bulan Juli. Kompas.Com.

Setditjen Falmalkes. (2022). Dukungan Penyediaan Vaksin bagi Keberhasilan Pelaksanaan Vaksinasi COVID-19. Vaksin COVID-19 tiba divaksin CoronaVac buatan dari Sinovac.

Symons, C., Amlôt, R., Carter, H., & Rubin, G. J. (2021). Effects of threat and efficacy messages on expected adherence to decontamination protocols in an immersive simulated chemical incident: A randomized controlled experiment. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 29(1), 54–76.

Tsoy, D., Godinic, D., Tong, Q., Obrenovic, B., Khudaykulov, A., & Kurpayanidi, K. (2022). Impact of Social Media, Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) on the Intention to Stay at Home during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(12).

Ward, N. J., Finley, K., Townsend, A., & Scott, B. G. (2021). The effects of message threat on psychological reactance to traffic safety messaging. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 80, 250–259.

Widyawati (Kepala Biro Komunikasi dan Pelayanan Masyarakat). (2022). Lonjakan Kasus COVID di Indonesia, Disebabkan Peningkatan Testing dan Tracing.

Witte, K. (1992). Putting the fear back into fear appeals: The extended parallel process model. Communication Monographs, 59(4), 329–349.

Yang, J., Wu, X., Sasaki, K., & Yamada, Y. (2021). No significant association of repeated messages with changes in health compliance in the covid-19 pandemic: A registered report on the extended parallel process model. PeerJ, 9, 1–18.

Zhang, W., Xiong, S., Zheng, Y., & Wu, J. (2022). Response Efficacy and Self-Efficacy Mediated the Relationship between Perceived Threat and Psychic Anxiety among College Students in the Early Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 19(5).

How to Cite
Ayunarendra, V. K., Wiyanto, S., & Nurdin, I. (2024). The Influence of Efficacy and Threat Messages on the Intention to Complete the Covid-19 Booster Vaccination: Experimental Study of University Students. Journal La Medihealtico, 5(3), 485-494.